Standardised achievement testing is increasingly common in educational and industrial settings. K-12 students take state assessments to comply with federal education laws. Many colleges administer assessments to place incoming students in initial courses and ensure that graduates have benefited from instruction. Professions such as law and medicine give assessments for certification and licensure. This book presents research in the study of achievement tests, including visual motor assessment tests and assistive technologies as applied to adults with learning disabilities; using teacher's recommendations and achievement tests for promoting ethnic minority students into secondary schools; as well as test anxiety and test motivation in achievement test performance.
Addressed to in-service and pre-service teachers and administrators, this book reorders educational priorities, emphasizing the relation of what is taught to what is tested, educationally sound and effective preparation for assessments, exploring alternatives to paper and pencil tests, the appropriate interpretation and use of test results, communicating the meaning of assessment results to parents and communities, and using program evaluation to improve learning.
Inequalities in educational opportunity have been a persistent feature of all school systems for generations, with conventional explanations of differences in educational attainment tending to be reduced to either quantitative or non-quantitative 'list' theories. In this groundbreaking book, Roy Nash argues that a realist framework for the sociological explanation of educational group differences can, and must be, constructed. A move to such an explanatory framework will allow us to take into account the social influences of early childhood development, the later emergence of social identities, and the nature of the social class impact of educational and career decision-making. By building on the critical analyses of the theories of Bourdieu, Boudon and Bernstein, this book makes a vital contribution to the current policy and theoretical debate about the causes of educational inequality.
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