Presenting cutting-edge studies from various countries into the theoretical and practical issues surrounding the literacy acquisition of at-risk children, this volume focuses specifically on the utility of technology in supporting and advancing literacy among the relevant populations. These include a range of at-risk groups such as those with learning disabilities, low socioeconomic status, and minority ethnicity. Arguing that literacy is a key requirement for integration into any modern society, the book outlines new ways in which educators and researchers can overcome the difficulties faced by children in these at-risk groups. It also reflects the rapid development of technology in this field, which in turn necessitates the accumulation of fresh research evidence.
Standardised achievement testing is increasingly common in educational and industrial settings. K-12 students take state assessments to comply with federal education laws. Many colleges administer assessments to place incoming students in initial courses and ensure that graduates have benefited from instruction. Professions such as law and medicine give assessments for certification and licensure. This book presents research in the study of achievement tests, including visual motor assessment tests and assistive technologies as applied to adults with learning disabilities; using teacher's recommendations and achievement tests for promoting ethnic minority students into secondary schools; as well as test anxiety and test motivation in achievement test performance.
The basic theme of this book concerns the relations between motivation and achievement, particularly as they relate to educational settings. The issues are addressed from a social-developmental perspective. The book is organized into three sections. The development of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations is addressed in the first section, where contributors offer their latest account of the distinction between the two orientations, emphasizing how the two motivational systems develop. The effects of motivational orientations on interpersonal interaction and on creativity are addressed in the two subsequent chapters. The second section focuses on the relation between motivation and the experience of competence. Three chapters address the development of competence, affect, and motivation from grade school to junior high; the effects of competence information on intrinsic motivation; and the development of competence assessment processes. In the third section the relation between motivation and achievement is explored. Two chapters discuss the effect of extrinsic pressures on self-regulation, and on the relations among intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, performance, motivational style and learned helplessness. Finally, the concepts of optimal degrees of pressure and performance, and of defensive behavior in the form of self-handicapping, are discussed in the last two chapters. A final summary chapter provides an overview of the basic themes of the book.
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