Urban Transport Development is a contribution to the ongoing global discussion on the future of urban transport. The main themes are how to cope with the complexity of urban transport development and the process of change including its determining factors. The role of leadership in the development process is the key issue. Main areas of discussion are the historical background, the diversity and complexity of present problems, and the outcome of attempts to promote positive future development in urban environments around the world.
This book explores the history of economic development thought, with an emphasis on alternative approaches in macro development economics.
Given that the pioneers of development economics in the 1940s and 1950s drew inspiration from classical political economists, this book opens with a review of key classical scholars who wrote about the progress of the wealth of nations. In reviewing the thinking of the pioneers and those that followed, both their theories of development and underdevelopment are discussed. Overall, the book charts the evolution of development economic thought from the early developmentalists and structuralists, through to the neo-Marxist approach and radical development theory, the neo-liberal counter revolution, and the debate between new developmentalists and neo-liberal scholars. It ends with an assessment of the state of the field today.
This book will be of interest to all scholars and students interested in the evolution of development economics.
Externally the vertebrate body plan presents a bilateral symmetry in relation to the midline. However, inside the body the distribution of the visceral organs follows a very particular pattern that is not symmetrical in relation to the midline.
The last 10 years have seen remarkable advances in our understanding of how the internal asymmetries typical of the vertebrate body are established and controlled. The use of different development models has permitted to uncover fascinating ways of creating asymmetry, like the activity of the nodal cilia. A host of studies has also unravelled the involvement of many genes in the left right patterning pathway.
Based on this knowledge the genetic basis of human laterality defects are beginning to be revealed. It is a major challenge now to understand how all these genes control left right development as well as the complex set of interactions established between them.
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