This book is a practical guide to help you become more motivated and achieve greater success through the challenges you face in life or the new ones you decide to take on. Motivation is key to challenging yourself, overcoming barriers and being successful in life and the more you achieve, the more fulfilling and happier your life will be.
The basic theme of this book concerns the relations between motivation and achievement, particularly as they relate to educational settings. The issues are addressed from a social-developmental perspective. The book is organized into three sections. The development of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations is addressed in the first section, where contributors offer their latest account of the distinction between the two orientations, emphasizing how the two motivational systems develop. The effects of motivational orientations on interpersonal interaction and on creativity are addressed in the two subsequent chapters. The second section focuses on the relation between motivation and the experience of competence. Three chapters address the development of competence, affect, and motivation from grade school to junior high; the effects of competence information on intrinsic motivation; and the development of competence assessment processes. In the third section the relation between motivation and achievement is explored. Two chapters discuss the effect of extrinsic pressures on self-regulation, and on the relations among intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, performance, motivational style and learned helplessness. Finally, the concepts of optimal degrees of pressure and performance, and of defensive behavior in the form of self-handicapping, are discussed in the last two chapters. A final summary chapter provides an overview of the basic themes of the book.
In this sequel to Lichtenberg's Psychoanalysis and Motivation (TAP, 1989), the authors show how their revised theory of motivation provides the foundation for a new approach to psychoanalytic technique. The approach in Self and Motivational Systemsemphasizes a finely honed sensitivity to moment-to-moment analytic exchanges and an appreciation of which motivational system is dominant during that exchange. Throughout, the authors stress the creative power of psychoanalysis as a joint effort shaped by the intersubjective context of a particular analysand communicating and interacting with a particular analyst. At the heart of the analytic relationship is the analysand's expectation of evoking a vitalizing selfobject experience from the analyst and the analyst's expectation, in turn, of evoking a selfobject experience of efficacy from his or her work with the analysand.
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